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说谎的方法,词汇分析

来源:http://www.best-sclae.com 作者:手机版美高梅网站 时间:2019-12-02 19:14

Feelings, not facts, are what matter in this sort of campaigning. Their opponents’ disbelief validates the us-versus-them mindset that outsider candidates thrive on【13】. And if your opponents focus on trying to show your facts are wrong, they have to fight on the ground you have chosen. The more Remain campaigners【14】 attacked the Leave campaign’s【15】 exaggerated claim that EU membership cost Britain £350m ($468m) a week, the longer they kept the magnitude of those costs in the spotlight.

大器晚成旦政治像摔角,社会就要付诸沉重的代价。Trump百折不挠以为前美利坚合众国总统创制了伊斯兰国(IS)就妨碍了怎么着回答暴力极端主义分子那意气风发几乎的论题。政策本身就很复杂,不过后精气神政治又质问其太复杂,因为行家的伎俩是用来糊弄别的人的。所以希Larry·Clinton对带薪产假的提出才未经济考察查,贸易倾向被“常识”供给爱惜所铲除。

Facebook, Google and Twitter were supposed to save politics as good information drove out prejudice and falsehood. Something has gone very wrong.

【24】paid parental leave 带薪产假

To counter this, mainstream politicians need to find a language of rebuttal (being called “pro-truth” might be a start). Humility and the acknowledgment of past hubris would help. The truth has powerful forces on its side. Any politician who makes contradictory promises to different audiences will soon be exposed on Facebook or YouTube. If an official lies about attending a particular meeting or seeking a campaign donation, a trail of e-mails may catch him out.

IN 1962 a British political scientist, Bernard Crick, published “In Defence of Politics”. He argued that the art of political horse-trading, far from being shabby, lets people of different beliefs live together in a peaceful, thriving society. In a liberal democracy, nobody gets exactly what he wants, but everyone broadly has the freedom to lead the life he chooses. However, without decent information, civility and conciliation, societies resolve their differences by resorting to coercion. How Crick would have been dismayed by the falsehood and partisanship on display in this week’s Senate committee hearings in Washington. Not long ago social media held out the promise of a more enlightened politics, as accurate information and effortless communication helped good people drive out corruption, bigotry and lies. Yet Facebook acknowledged that before and after last year’s American election, between January 2015 and August this year, 146m users may have seen Russian misinformation on its platform. Google’s YouTube admitted to 1,108 Russian-linked videos and Twitter to 36,746 accounts. Far from bringing enlightenment, social media have been spreading poison. Russia’s trouble-making is only the start. From South Africa to Spain, politics is getting uglier. Part of the reason is that, by spreading untruth and outrage, corroding voters’ judgment and aggravating partisanship, social media erode the conditions for the horse-trading that Crick thought fosters liberty. A shorter attention spa...oh, look at that! The use of social media does not cause division so much as amplify it. The financial crisis of 2007-08 stoked popular anger at a wealthy elite that had left everyone else behind. The culture wars have split voters by identity rather than class. Nor are social media alone in their power to polarise—just look at cable TV and talk radio. But, whereas Fox News is familiar, social-media platforms are new and still poorly understood. And, because of how they work, they wield extraordinary influence. They make their money by putting photos, personal posts, news stories and ads in front of you. Because they can measure how you react, they know just how to get under your skin (see article). They collect data about you in order to have algorithms to determine what will catch your eye, in an “attention economy” that keeps users scrolling, clicking and sharing—again and again and again. Anyone setting out to shape opinion can produce dozens of ads, analyse them and see which is hardest to resist. The result is compelling: one study found that users in rich countries touch their phones 2,600 times a day. It would be wonderful if such a system helped wisdom and truth rise to the surface. But, whatever Keats said, truth is not beauty so much as it is hard work—especially when you disagree with it. Everyone who has scrolled through Facebook knows how, instead of imparting wisdom, the system dishes out compulsive stuff that tends to reinforce people’s biases. This aggravates the politics of contempt that took hold, in the United States at least, in the 1990s. Because different sides see different facts, they share no empirical basis for reaching a compromise. Because each side hears time and again that the other lot are good for nothing but lying, bad faith and slander, the system has even less room for empathy. Because people are sucked into a maelstrom of pettiness, scandal and outrage, they lose sight of what matters for the society they share. This tends to discredit the compromises and subtleties of liberal democracy, and to boost the politicians who feed off conspiracy and nativism. Consider the probes into Russia’s election hack by Congress and the special prosecutor, Robert Mueller, who has just issued his first indictments. After Russia attacked America, Americans ended up attacking each other (see article). Because the framers of the constitution wanted to hold back tyrants and mobs, social media aggravate Washington gridlock. In Hungary and Poland, without such constraints, they help sustain an illiberal, winner-takes-all style of democracy. In Myanmar, where Facebook is the main source of news for many, it has deepened the hatred of the Rohingya, victims of ethnic cleansing. Social media, social responsibility What is to be done? People will adapt, as they always do. A survey this week found that only 37% of Americans trust what they get from social media, half the share that trust printed newspapers and magazines. Yet in the time it takes to adapt, bad goverments with bad politics could do a lot of harm. Society has created devices, such as libel, and ownership laws, to rein in old media. Some are calling for social-media companies, like publishers, to be similarly accountable for what appears on their platforms; to be more transparent; and to be treated as monopolies that need breaking up. All these ideas have merit, but they come with trade-offs. When Facebook farms out items to independent outfits for fact-checking, the evidence that it moderates behaviour is mixed. Moreover, politics is not like other kinds of speech; it is dangerous to ask a handful of big firms to deem what is healthy for society. Congress wants transparency about who pays for political ads, but a lot of malign influence comes through people carelessly sharing barely credible news posts. Breaking up social-media giants might make sense in antitrust terms, but it would not help with political speech—indeed, by multiplying the number of platforms, it could make the industry harder to manage. There are other remedies. The social-media companies should adjust their sites to make clearer if a post comes from a friend or a trusted source. They could accompany the sharing of posts with reminders of the harm from misinformation. Bots are often used to amplify political messages. Twitter could disallow the worst—or mark them as such. Most powerfully, they could adapt their algorithms to put clickbait lower down the feed. Because these changes cut against a business-model designed to monopolise attention, they may well have to be imposed by law or by a regulator. Social media are being abused. But, with a will, society can harness them and revive that early dream of enlightenment. The stakes for liberal democracy could hardly be higher.

If, like this newspaper, you believe that politics should be based on evidence, this is worrying. Strong democracies can draw on【8】 inbuilt defences against post-truth. Authoritarian countries are more vulnerable.

思考看Donald·Trump离事实偏得有多少路程。他简直住在睡梦王国里:前美利坚合众国总统的出生表明是假冒的,而且她还亲手创办了伊斯兰江山(IS);Clinton夫妇便是刽子手;在枪杀John·费茨Gerard·Kennedy在此以前,其对手的老爹曾和李·Harvey·奥斯瓦尔德一同。

【22】sleight of hand 手腕,花招

Politicians have always lied. Does it matter if they leave the truth behind entirely?

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Mr. Trump is the leading exponentof “post-truth” politics—a reliance on assertions that “feel true” but have nobasis in fact. His brazenness is not punished, but taken as evidence of his willingnessto stand up to elite power. And he is not alone. Members of Poland’s governmentassert that a previous president, who died in a plane crash, was assassinatedby Russia. Turkish politicians claim the perpetrators of the recent bungled coupwere acting on orders issued by the CIA. The successful campaign for Britain toleave the European Union warned of the hordes of immigrants that would resultfrom Turkey’s imminent accession to the union.

【27】hubris 狂妄

If, like this newspaper, youbelieve that politics should be based on evidence, this is worrying. Strongdemocracies can draw on inbuilt defences against post-truth. Authoritarian countriesare more vulnerable.

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It is tempting to think that,when policies sold on dodgy prospect uses start to fail, lied-to supportersmight see the error of their ways. The worst part of post-truth politics,though, is that this self-correction cannot be relied on. When lies make thepolitical system dysfunctional, its poor results can feed the alienation andlack of trust in institutions that make the post-truth play possible in thefirst place.

【21】pro-wrestling 专门的工作摔跤(词中pro的意味是职业的);此外相似词语,如pro basketball 专门的学问篮球

参照他事他说加以考查译文:译言-【文学人】后精气神政治:说谎艺术

图片 3

Post-truth has also beenabetted by the evolution of the media (see pages 20-23). The fragmentation of newssources has created an atomised world in which lies, rumour and gossip spreadwith alarming speed. Lies that are widely shared online within a network, whosemembers trust each other more than they trust any mainstream-media source, canquickly take on the appearance of truth. Presented with evidence that contradictsa belief that is dearly held, people have a tendency to ditch the facts first.Well-intentioned journalistic practices bear blame too. The pursuit of“fairness” in reporting often creates phoney balance at the expense of truth.NASA scientist says Mars is probably uninhabited; Professor Snooks says it is teemingwith aliens. It’s really a matter of opinion.

【3】“post-truth” politics 后精气神儿政治,根据wikepedia的定义,是指在政治理论中举足轻重基于心理,脱离政治细节,重复有个别论点,却忽略事实辩驳的政治文化;该词来源于David罗Berts在二〇〇八年Grist专栏中的随笔Post-truth politics,在二〇一六年美利坚联邦合众国管辖选举和二零一五年大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国脱欧大选中流行起来

民主国家也会有制度的协助。独立的法律制度系列有编写制定来树立真相(确实,梅Rani娅·川普已经走法律路子弥补本身过去撒的谎)。所以,他们会做单独的集体来告诉政策---特别是依据科学的布置。

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说谎的办法

【8】draw on 利用,依赖

正文选自Economist(二〇一五年6月十三十一日)第11页,对这本杂志以至对翻译感兴趣的爱侣能够看看,译文中有不当之处请多多指教!本文最后有一片不错的参阅译文,能够赏玩!

But post-truth politics is more than just an invention of whingeing【10】 elites who have been outflanked【11】. The term picks out the heart of what is new: that truth is not falsified【12】, or contested, but of secondary importance. Once, the purpose of political lying was to create a false view of the world. The lies of men like Mr Trump do not work like that. They are not intended to convince the elites, whom their target voters neither trust nor like, but to reinforce prejudices.

But post-truth politics ismore than just an invention of whingeing elites who have been outflanked. Theterm picks out the heart of what is new: that truth is not falsified, orcontested, but of secondary importance. Once, the purpose of political lying wasto create a false view of the world. The lies of men like Mr. Trump do not worklike that. They are not intended to convince the elites, whom their target votersneither trust nor like, but to reinforce prejudices.

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Feelings, not facts, are what matter in this sort of campaigning. Their opponents’ disbelief validates the us-versus-them mindset that outsider candidates thrive on. And if your opponents focus on trying to show your facts are wrong, they have to fight on the ground you have chosen. The more Remain campaigners attacked the Leave campaign’s exaggerated claim that EU membership cost Britain£350 m ($468 m) a week, the longer they kept the magnitude of those costs in the spotlight.

图片 6

外交家时有时就撒谎亦不是什么新闻:动脑看罗恩ald·里根,他撒了个谎说为了能作保人质释放和援救尼加拉瓜的叛军,其政坛并未与伊朗伊斯兰共和国拓宽兵器交易。试图蒙蔽其无能的独裁者和民主职员总是能够只手遮天(九变十化);退步者总会怪别人撒谎。

图片 7

Lord of the lies

When politics is like pro-wrestling【21】, society pays the cost. Mr Trump’s insistence that Mr Obama founded IS precludes a serious debate over how to deal with violent extremists. Policy is complicated, yet post-truth politics damns complexity as the sleight of hand【22】 experts use to bamboozle【23】 everyone else. Hence Hillary Clinton’s proposals on paid parental leave【24】 go unexamined (see article) and the case for trade liberalisation is drowned out【25】 by “common sense” demands for protection.

川普是“后精气神”政治优异的特出---依据“以为是那么回事儿”却有未有真相依靠的预见。他这种可耻的行径不但未有遇到惩治,反而还被用来证实他能与人才政治鼎足而居。但是她还不是孤例。波兰共和国政府的议员断言早前在飞行器事故身亡的前线总指挥部统是被俄罗丝暗害的。Turkey外交家宣称方今失败的政变者是根据核激情报局的命令。英帝国脱欧本场成功的移动警示了是因为Turkey将在参加欧洲联盟而发生的移民大军。

后精气神政治(post-truth politics)来源于David罗Berts在二零一零年Grist专栏中的大器晚成篇小说,在二〇一四年美利坚合众国总统选举和2014年大不列颠及英格兰联合王国脱欧公投中流行起来。Trump是假话之王(lord of the lies),后精气神儿政治的能工巧匠(exponent)。他的批评与真情天冠地屦(estranged from fact)。其可耻不但未有碰到惩办,反而被视为对于精英势力的抵御(stand up to elite power)。然而,川普实际不是个例。Türkiye Cumhuriyeti政客声称在后天挫败的政变(bungled coup)中,犯罪者(perpetrator)是奉CIA之命行事。在英帝国脱欧运动(Brexit)中,留欧派(Remain campaigners)与脱欧派(Leave campaigners)相博艺,大家轻信土耳其共和国将出席欧洲联盟(accession to the union)发生一大波移民。政客谎言已经不是情报。里根总理曾撒了小谎(fib),称未有与伊朗伊斯兰共和国张开武器贸易,以承保释放人质并帮衬尼加拉瓜的反叛势力。但是,后精气神政治不是一批牢骚满腹(whingeing)的挫败(outflanked)精英们杜撰出来的,而是映射了二个新的骨干问题:真相未有被曲解(falsified)或思疑,而是突显不那么首要了。举例,Trump的弥天天津大学学谎不是为了说性格很顽强在荆棘满途或巨大压力面前不屈精英,而是为了加强门户之见。后精气神儿政治存在积极的四只。对现成体制和普及信念(received wisdom)的质询是民主的充足呈现。但腐蚀的本事也会发生潜移默化(at play)。当天才阶层如日方升(thrive),选民却感觉颓靡、愤怒,他们藐视这几个使用(draw on)科学手腕为政策服务的手艺官僚(technocrat),也不相信赖主流媒体。为了追求“公平”,报导中时时捐躯精气神以高达虚假(phoney)的平衡。当政治成为一场专业摔跤竞赛(pro-wrestling),须要全社会来埋单。一些行家采取政治的目迷五色,耍弄手段(sleight of hand)来愚弄(bamboozle)公众。所以,希Larry建议的带薪产假(paid parental leave)最后子宫打碎,自贸议事原案也被交易爱抚要求的“常识”消逝(drowned out)。如若根据棍骗性宣传(dodgy prospectuses)的国策末了败北,被欺诈的维护者或然出现转机。但这种自己更正的功效并不有限援救。当谎言引致政治连串功用失调,就能够招致疏间感和不信。为此,主流革命家须求保持谦善,认可自身过去的猖狂(hubris)。若是有些政客对两样观者作出相互冲突的应允,十分的快就能在Facebook(TWT索罗德.US卡塔尔(قطر‎或YouTube遭到揭露。如若某位官员虚报参与有个别会议或筹备选举募捐(campaign donation),就能够有人对其邮件进行追踪,最后识破谎言(catch him out)。在单身的法度类别中,能够采取真相开掘机制来对抗谎言,讨回公道(seek redress for lies)。如若Trump在十三月份输给,后精气神儿政治或许变得不那么哄动一时。但更顾虑的是俄罗斯和土耳其共和国,那二国的政客利用后精气神儿手腕反逼对手默不失声。漂流(cast drift)在谎言的大洋中,大家将无所依据。新兴的后精气神儿政治或然将大家拉回了十分的饱受压制的时代。

CONSIDER how far Donald Trumpis estranged from fact. He inhabits a fantastical realm where Barack Obama’s birth certificate was faked, the president founded Islamic State (IS), the Clintons are killers and the father of a rival was with Lee Harvey Oswald before he shot John F. Kennedy.

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革命家平昔都在说谎成性。他们是否对真相置之不闻主要呢?

图片 9

感到并非真实情状,却在大选中特别主要。其批驳者的不相信赖证实了“大家与她们”这种思考定式,以为局外人才会强盛。若是你的反对者集中注脚您说的真相不对,那她们就得针对你选定的局面。留派越夸张去派说欧洲联盟成员周周开支大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国3.5亿美金(4.68亿法郎)的这种说法,欧洲结盟各成员的消耗费资金金成为难题的年华越长。

【4】stand up to Sb 抵抗、批驳某个人

**先真相者才干立足并赢得信任
**

If Mr Trump loses in November, post-truth will seem less menacing, though he has been too successful for it to go away. The deeper worry is for countries like Russia and Turkey, where autocrats use the techniques of post-truth to silence opponents. Cast adrift【30】 on an ocean of lies, the people there will have nothing to cling to. For them the novelty of post-truth may lead back to old-fashioned oppression.

But corrosive forces are alsoat play. One is anger. Many voters feel let down and left behind, while theelites who are in charge have thrived. They are scornful of the self-servingtechnocrats who said that the euro would improve their lives and that SaddamHussein had weapons of mass destruction. Popular trust in expert opinion andestablished institutions has tumbled across Western democracies.

【17】be at play 起功能,发生影响

Democracies have institutionsto help, too. Independent legal systems have mechanisms to establish truth(indeed, Melania Trump has turned to the law to seek redress for lies about herpast). So, in their way, do the independent bodies created to informpolicy—especially those that draw on science.

【23】bamboozle 欺骗,愚弄;名词为bamboozlement

【30】Cast adrift 漂流

That politicians sometimes peddle lies is not news: think of Ronald Reagan’s fib that his administration had not traded weapons with Iran in order to secure the release of hostages and to fund the efforts of rebels in Nicaragua. Dictators and democrats seeking to deflect blame for their own incompetence have always manipulated the truth;sore losers have always accused the other lot of lying.

图片 10

When politics is likepro-wrestling, society pays the cost. Mr. Trump’s insistence that Mr. Obamafounded IS precludes a serious debate over how to deal with violent extremists.Policy is complicated, yet post-truth politics damns complexity as the sleightof hand experts use to bamboozle everyone else. Hence Hillary Clinton’sproposals on paid parental leave go unexamined (see page 33) and the case fortrade liberalisation is drowned out by “common sense” demands for protection.

Pro-truthers stand and be counted

To counter this, mainstream politicians need to find a language of rebuttal (being called “pro-truth” might be a start). Humility and the acknowledgment of past hubris【27】 would help. The truth has powerful forces on its side. Any politician who makes contradictory promises to different audiences will soon be exposed on Facebook or YouTube. If an official lies about attending a particular meeting or seeking a campaign donation, a trail of e-mails may catch him out【28】.

为了反驳这点,主流的法学家须求找到批驳的语句(被叫作“先真相者”可能只是个起来)。保持谦善并认可过去太跋扈才有用。真相自身就全体强大的技能。对民众做出冲突承诺的军事家相当的慢就能够在推特(Twitter卡塔尔(قطر‎(TWT奥德赛.US卡塔尔国或YouTube上暴光。倘诺领导对在座有个别特定会议或寻求公投接济撒了谎,生机勃勃封电子邮件恐怕就能让她出局。

【19】weapons of mass destruction 大范围杀伤性军器

Post-truth politics has manyparents. Some are noble. The questioning of institutions and received wisdom isa democratic virtue. A sceptical lack of deference towards leaders is the firststep to reform. The collapse of communism was hastened because brave peoplewere prepared to challenge the official propaganda.

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然而后精气神政治绝不只是是长吁短气被“包围”的材料。这一个术语倒是揭破了新东西的主干所在:真相不是被扭曲或争论出来的,而是根本不首要。曾经政治谎言的目标是要创立出乖谬的价值观。像Trump那类人的鬼话也不会有啥用。他们不是要信服精英,因为他们的靶子投票者不相信赖也恨恶材料,他们是要加重门户之争。

【小结】

但腐蚀的力量也在发挥效用。此中之生龙活虎正是愤怒。超多选民有深负众望以致被吐弃的认为到,而融入的质感却风华正茂度强盛起来了。他们轻渎自个儿服务的读书人政论者,因为这一个行家政论者说欧元会提升自己生命力,还说侯赛因·萨达姆·侯赛因具有广大破坏性军器。大众对大家发言和已确立制度的深信已经在天堂民主国家倾覆了。

【26】prospectus 本意是(学园的)简单介绍、简章,(公司的)招股章程、募股章程,这里dodgy prospectuses是指包罗诈骗性的鼓吹

只要川普在1十一月份落选,后精气神儿看起来就从未怎么勒迫了,但他打响的可能性极大。对俄罗斯和Türkiye Cumhuriyeti那几个国家来说,越来越深等级次序的焦躁是铁腕人物用后精气神手腕让对手缄默。漂流在谎言的海洋上,人们无所依赖。对她们的话,后精气神的新颖性只怕会引导他们重临旧时的搜刮。

Mr Trump is the leading exponent【2】 of “post-truth” politics【3】—a reliance on assertions that “feel true” but have no basis in fact. His brazenness is not punished, but taken as evidence of his willingness to stand up to【4】 elite power. And he is not alone. Members of Poland’s government assert that a previous president, who died in a plane crash, was assassinated by Russia. Turkish politicians claim the perpetrators【5】 of the recent bungled【6】 coup were acting on orders issued by the CIA. The successful campaign for Britain to leave the European Union warned of the hordes of immigrants that would result from Turkey’s imminent accession to【7】 the union.

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Art of the lie

Consider how far Donald Trump is estranged from【1】 fact. He inhabits a fantastical realm where Barack Obama’s birth certificate was faked, the president founded Islamic State (IS), the Clintons are killers and the father of a rival was with Lee Harvey Oswald before he shot John F. Kennedy.

后精气神儿政治起点繁多。有个别还很圣洁。对制度和已接收智慧的质询是民主的贤惠。对经营管理者缺乏爱惜是改正的首先步。共产主义神速崩塌正是因为解衣推食的人总是要挑衅官方的鼓吹。

Post-truth politics has many parents. Some are noble. The questioning of institutions and received wisdom【16】 is a democratic virtue. A sceptical lack of deference towards leaders is the first step to reform. 

说谎之王

【18】technocrat 技巧官僚,本领行家官员(这么些词由前缀techno-和后缀-crat组成,techno-意思是才具的,-crat或-ocrat意思是官府)

后精气神儿也被媒体发展推动了。音信来源的残篇断简创建精晓体的社会风气,在此个世界里谎言、蜚语和八卦神速仗势作恶。谎言在互连网传来传去,网上好朋友更乐于相互信赖也不信主流媒体,于是便有了似是而非。有了与投机相信的自信心相悖的证据,人们才会解脱事实。而善意的信息广播发表也是有职责。在通信中追求“公平”往往会导致虚伪的平衡,而就义了庐山面目目。U.S.宇航局某物经济学家说Mercury只怕并不稳妥人类居住;斯努克斯教师说木星上四处都是外星人。这实在是发言的主题素材。

【28】catch sb out 识破(错误)

假设像报纸里相仿你认为政治应当以事实为底蕴,那就有一点点恼火了。强盛的民主国家可以动用针对后精气神儿的放松权利防止,权威主义国家就更虚亏损。

【16】received wisdom 普及观念

Pro-truthers stand and be counted

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当热衷于危害前景使用的政策开首失利时,被谎言吸引的扶持者大概才会看出她们形式不对,出主意倒还挺吸引人的。然而后真相政治最不佳的方面是这种自个儿改正的手段并不可靠。当谎言让政治种类崩溃时,倒霉的结局会爆发隔开分离感,不再信赖生龙活虎开头就让后精气神游戏成为可能的制度。

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Art of the lie

Lord of the lies

That politicians sometimes peddle lies is not news: think of Ronald Reagan’s fib【9】 that his administration had not traded weapons with Iran in order to secure the release of hostages and to fund the efforts of rebels in Nicaragua. Dictators and democrats seeking to deflect blame for their own incompetence have always manipulated the truth; sore losers have always accused the other lot of lying.

If Mr. Trump losesin November, post-truth will seem less menacing, though he has been toosuccessful for it to go away. The deeper worry is for countries like Russia andTurkey, where autocrats use the techniques of post-truth to silence opponents. Castadrift on an ocean of lies, the people there will have nothing to cling to. Forthem the novelty of post-truth may lead back to old-fashioned oppression.

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【7】accession to 正式参预

【2】exponent 能手,鼓吹者

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* 注:本文仅供就学交换之用,不意味着小编观点。

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But corrosive forces are also at play【17】. One is anger. Many voters feel let down and left behind, while the elites who are in charge have thrived. They are scornful of the self-serving technocrats【18】 who said that the euro would improve their lives and that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction【19】. Popular trust in expert opinion and established institutions has tumbled across Western democracies.

It is tempting to think that, when policies sold on dodgy prospectuses【26】 start to fail, lied-to supporters might see the error of their ways. The worst part of post-truth politics, though, is that this self-correction cannot be relied on. When lies make the political system dysfunctional, its poor results can feed the alienation and lack of trust in institutions that make the post-truth play possible in the first place.

【5】perpetrator 犯罪者,作恶者,行凶者;相应动词用法perpetrate sth (against/upon/on sb卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar),相应名词perpetration

【6】bungle 搞砸,失败

【12】falsified 点窜,杜撰,名词格局为falsification;false 错误的,虚假的;falsehood 虚假性,谬误,谎言

Democracies have institutions to help, too. Independent legal systems have mechanisms to establish truth (indeed, Melania Trump has turned to the law to *seek redress for**【29】*** lies about her past). So, in their way, do the independent bodies created to inform policy—especially those that draw on science.

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【15】Leave campaigner 脱欧派;Leave campaign扶植脱欧的活动;Leave camp脱欧阵营

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【25】drown out 淹没

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【14】Remain campaigners留欧派;Remain campaign扶植留欧的移动;Remain camp留欧阵营

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【29】 redress 修正,补偿;seek redress for 讨回公道,供给赔偿损失

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【9】fib 无关痛痒的小慌

【13】thrive on sth 因某一件事而有成

【11】outflank 占上风(这一个词由前缀out-和flank组成,out-表示超越、超过,flank是右侧包车型地铁意思,所以outflank的原意是侧翼包抄)

【20】phoney 虚假的;也可作名词,意为骗子

【10】whinge about sb/sth 抱怨某一个人/某一件事(United Kingdom方言、澳国俚语]= whine)

【1】estranged from 与(某一件事)脱离,与(某一个人)疏离;其余estranged还应该有分居的意思;名词为estrangement

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本期原来的书文选自The Economist 2014-9-10的Leaders板块Art of the lie,释义来自斯坦福高阶七版、佐治亚理工高阶学习词典英汉双解第3版、朗文双解词典、柯林斯词典等能源。假若您也在读书The Economist,迎接订阅作者的文集The Economist,一同读书交换。

Post-truth has also been abetted by the evolution of the media (see Briefing). The fragmentation of news sources has created an atomised world in which lies, rumour and gossip spread with alarming speed. Lies that are widely shared online within a network, whose members trust each other more than they trust any mainstream-media source, can quickly take on the appearance of truth. Presented with evidence that contradicts a belief that is dearly held, people have a tendency to ditch the facts first. Well-intentioned journalistic practices bear blame too. The pursuit of “fairness” in reporting often creates phoney【20】 balance at the expense of truth. NASA scientist says Mars is probably uninhabited; Professor Snooks says it is teeming with aliens. It’s really a matter of opinion.

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